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Selected concepts

 

CHAPTER  III

SELECTED CONCEPTS RELATING TO THE DRUZE

 

 

1. Four Books of Faith: the Five Books of Moses, the Psalms, the Gospels, the Koran. 

 

2. The text of the Druze Catechism can be found in Hichi, Salim Hassan in "La Communote Druze: son orgin et son histoire". Beyrout, 1973.

 

3. God "God came to earth as a human before his people and led the same life as they did."

"... he governs all, he may, if he wants, take the figure of a man, a king, an imam, a prophet, but also a simple man. This can be done in a place and at a time submitted only to his will."

 

4. Ḡayba "It is absence, disappearance, hiding; this concept already occurred in the doctrine of Ismaili Shiite who believe that the twelfth imam went into hiding because of the wickedness of people. For the Druze, the period of absence is a trial period which ends with the triumphant return of Imam (the incarnation of God) which is foretold by a number of signs defined in the Holy Scriptures."

 

5. Judgment Day "It will come when the rulers will rule according to their fantasies and when Christians have authority over Muslims."

 

6. Five Pillars of the Druze religion

I. Hamza ibn ‘Alī ibn Aḥmad az-Zawzani – universal intelligence, al-Akl.

II. Abu Ibrahim Ismail b. Muhammad b. Hammad at-Tamimi – universal soul.

III. Abu Abd Allah Muhammad b. Wahib al-Kurajshi – the word.

IV. Abu al-Chajr Salama b. Abd al-Wahhab as-Samiri – the successor.

V. Baha ad-Din Abu al-Hasan Ali b. Ahmad as-Sammuki al-Mashuri (Muqtana).

 

7. Five colours of the Druze banner

green – Hamza,

red – Ismail,

yellow – al-Kurajshi,

blue – al-Chajr,

white – al-Hasan,

 

8. The Druze Commandments

I. “Don’t lie – it is the most important of all commandments as it also includes: don’t steal, don’t kill, do not commit adultery. Whoever commits one of these sins lies in the soul, lies openly in words in order to expiate his guilt. Lying can therefore be a more or less serious offence, depending on which of the commandments has been violated.

II. Love your brothers and provide them with all the needed material and spiritual help.

III. Do not, in your soul, believe in other religions and their gods, in particular idols, sacred stones, such as Al-Kaaba.

IV. Do not uncover the mystery of Our Lord. Discard his rivals and honour the five priests.

V. Believe in the oneness of God in all ages, times and age.

VI. Obey the will of God.

VII. Be strong and steadfast in faith in the face of happiness and failures.”

 

9. Al-Majlis: "A simple room with no architectural embellishments. We will not see any statues. Mats are spread on the ground. A simple pulpit stands there."

 

10. The prayer: "The five Muslim prayers at set times, the Druze replace with adoration, which may take place at any time and any place."

 

11. Fast: Fasting can be substituted by silence, not speaking

 

12. Pilgrimage: The Druze are not required to do a pilgrimage.

 

13. Reincarnation - Kamal Jumblatt wrote: "After death, the soul of the deceased detaches from his body and goes to the body of a child being born. Until this time, the child lived in his mother's womb with an animal form. With the baby's first breath, the soul penetrates the body to remain in it until its death."

"The body does not come back after death; souls pass into other bodies and subordinate them. The united soul passes into a united form, and the soul of an unfaithful in the unfaithful form. The soul passing into a different body does not change. Only the body of a human acquires a soul. Animals do not have this ability."

 

14. The cult of the bull: "In the Museum of Cardinal Borgia, there is a brass figure to which the Druze adoration was attributed."
"... The Jesuits who lived in Syria since the beginning of the seventeenth century noted in their manuscripts that the Druze have a figure of their founder and... they treat it like a God, addressing their requests to it."
"To drink (to accept) the bull is to become an unfaithful according to the Druze books, worshipers of the bull will be treated with extreme severity on Judgment Day."
"A bull and a buffalo were used as symbols of false religions, especially those coming from Muhammad and Ali, i.e., pure Mohammedanism and its allegorical variety Ismailism."

 

A fragment of the Druze books: "Those who move away from the truth plunge into the vast darkness of ignorance and due to their obstinacy, which is far from the truth, they become lost in the depths of the error and forever remain drawn into the cult of a bull and an ox."

A fragment of a wisdom session: "Do not be liars, or do not repeat after those who say: we voluntarily confess what we are ordered to do and they take the bull into their hearts; because the bull is the enemy of the creator of the world and the bull usurps power to rule."
"As Mr. Venture observed, it is difficult to imagine that the Druze who have accepted the books of Hamza and Muqtana and hold them as sacred and as the foundation of their faith, could adore Hakim in the form of a bull figure."